Types of hernia

Hernia is one the common medical conditions that come as a result of the breaking of tissues or organs through an opening in a muscle or connecting tissue that keeps it in position. This causes a protrusion that is observed or felt in the afflicted region. Hernias can affect various body parts, although the abdominal cavity and groin are the most common. 

Though not usually fatal, hernias may bring discomfort and may require medical treatment to avoid severe complications. This article delves into the types of hernia, the causes, and treatment options available.

5 Different Types of Hernia

There are many types of hernia categorized according to the body part it affects. Below are the common types:

1. Inguinal hernia

This is by far the most common type of hernia, accounting for about 75% of the total hernias. It happens in the groin region, whereby the intestinal tract or tissue in the abdominal cavity protrudes via a weak point in the bottom of the abdominal walls. Inguinal hernias can be said to be a type of hernia in men as they are more frequent in men compared to women.

2. Femoral hernia

This type of hernia occurs in the groin crease near the artery that runs through the femur and is less common compared to inguinal hernias.

It’s known to be a kind of hernia in women because it affects women, especially those who have experienced birth several times.

3. Umbilical hernia

An umbilical hernia usually develops at the abdominal button after delivery since the tendons and muscles have not entirely. It is most common in newborns.

However, adults can get it, especially if there has been elevated pressure in the abdominal cavity from weight gain, being pregnant, or accumulation of fluid.

4. Spigelian Hernia

A spigelian hernia is an uncommon condition that develops due to spigelian fascia, a thin covering of fibrous tissue found in the bottom of the abdominal wall.

This type of hernia is usually tiny and may not have obvious signs. However, in certain circumstances, they can be painful or uncomfortable, particularly while coughing as such, straining, and twisting the body.

Spigelian hernias are difficult to identify and might be confused with other illnesses because of their size and position.

5. Sports Hernia

A sports hernia, often called a groin strain, does not qualify as a real hernia in the conventional view. It does not include an organ or tissue bulging through the muscle wall.

Rather, there is a rupture or stress in the muscle fibers or tendons that support the groin. This can produce discomfort in the groin, lower stomach, or inner thighs, especially while twisting, changing directions quickly, or performing vigorous leg motions. 

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Causes of Hernia

Several causes lead to the formation of hernia. Below are the most common hernia causes:

  • Intense abdominal pressure: One major cause of hernia is abdominal pressure. Activities that strain the muscles of the abdomen, like heavy lifting, severe coughing, stretching during diarrhea, or pregnancy, may cause a hernia.
  • Muscle weakness: Hernias can also result from congenital weakness in the abdomen or weakness due to aging, injury, or many operations.
  • Congenital defects: Hernia can also happen during childbirth if there is inadequate growth in the muscles that line the abdominal wall and tissues that connect. This might result in natural holes or weak points, resulting in tissues and organs that may protrude. Births that are premature or low body weight increase the risk of congenital hernias.
  • Smoking: Smoking damages connective tissue in the abdomen. This may increase your risk of developing hernias. Furthermore, the coughing caused by smoking might increase the risk.
  • Dialysis: Persons receiving peritoneal dialysis, a kind of organ replacement treatment, are more likely to suffer from hernias.
  • Prior abdominal operations: Tissue scars from past abdominal operations might weaken the lining of the abdomen, increasing the risk of future incisional hernias around the surgical site.

Symptoms of Hernia

The signs and symptoms associated with a hernia vary based on its nature and severity. Nevertheless, some typical signs of hernia problem are:

  • A bulge or apparent lump inside the afflicted region, which is frequently more obvious when rising or straining
  • The discomfort or pain within the bulging region may intensify with coughing as such, straining, or exercising.
  • A sense of weight or pulling in the abdomen.
  • Nausea or vomiting (in some instances)
  • Trouble releasing stool or urine urgency is infrequent.

Hernia in Men and Women

Hernias can develop in both men and women, although the most prevalent types of hernia vary depending on each individual’s body:

Femoral hernias are generally more prevalent in women and occur around the artery that runs through the femur in the groin.

Women’s pelvises are broader than men’s, which weakens this region. Women are additionally more likely to develop umbilical hernias, particularly after delivery, because of abdominal muscle straining.

The most common type of hernia in men is inguinal hernia, which occurs when tissue protrudes through the groin canal.

This passageway generally permits the spermatic cord (which contains blood vessels and nerves, including the vas deferens) to flow through the abdomen wall into the scrotum.


Hernias are a very frequent health issue that can be easily treated after a proper diagnosis. Although surgery is frequently the only option, some people may benefit from a period of observation.

Getting medical attention is critical to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Early detection of this condition can help avoid complications such as strangulated hernias, in which the projecting tissue loses blood flow and necessitates immediate surgery. A healthy lifestyle might help lower your chances of having a hernia or recurrence following surgery.